West of Cape Town, South Africa. There is a small island called Robin Ireland. The island is a World Heritage Site today. Only 50 years ago there used to be a big prison here. Then came a prisoner who changed the island and Africa forever. This post is about Nelson Mandela, a famous prisoner of the 20th century. His name was not Nelson Mandela, his father named him Ronnie Lila. Which means trouble maker. But when he was seven years old, his ski teacher named him Nelson. He also had a third name, Madiba, which he inherited from his family.
Not only did he get the name but he also got the courage to stand up for his father.
Mandela was very young when his father was summoned by a British magistrate for missing animals.
In those days South Africa was under British occupation. Mandela’s father was a landlord and stubborn.
He flatly refused to appear before a British magistrate.
On this refusal, the British government snatched the manor from him. After a while he also left the world. Thus, Mandela had neither the manor nor the shadow of his father. Mandela was orphaned but not destitute. His father had a friend who was the guardian of the young king of Mandela’s tribe, Themis.
He adopted Mandela. Junín Temba taught Mandela to read and write just like his son.
But Mandela’s first coup of his life was against his own benefactor. Jane Temba arranged the marriages of her two sons, Mandela and Justice. The two did not want to get married so they fled to Johannesburg. And from here, Mandela’s tough life began. At first he had to work in a coal mine, then he started working in a farm. He had become so poor that an acquaintance took pity on him and gave him a room with a tin roof. He also ate lunch at his house.
For five years he had only one pair of clothes. Despite these circumstances, he was able to obtain a B.A. degree in correspondence from the University of Africa. He started practicing law in 1952 after obtaining a two-year degree in law.
So things started to get better. Mandela’s financial situation was improving with the advocacy, but the situation in Africa was getting worse. In 1931, Africa gained independence from British rule, but 80% of African blacks were deprived of basic human rights.
There were also people of wheat color Only 9% of whites ruled over 99% of the people. These racists also had the support of the British. When Britain left Africa, the government fell into the hands of these whites. They started crushing blacks. In that era, everything was different for blacks in Africa, school trains, hospitals, etc. were also different.
Under these circumstances, Mandela did what most of his countrymen were doing. They started fighting for their rights on the streets.
Mandela first set out to protest when bus fares in his area increased in 1943.
Ten thousand people went out to protest against the increase in rent.
He went on such a successful strike that the buses remained empty for 9 days.
After 9 days, the demand of blacks was accepted. Elections were now being held in Africa in 1948, but in these elections blacks did not have the right to contest or vote. The contest was between only two parties, both white parties, one called the United Party and the other the National Party. The National Party had won this election. The party chief said in his victory speech that Africa was once again ours.
The National Party’s manifesto was to completely isolate blacks in Africa.
They did the same with blacks.
The Nationalist Party ruled for 46 years, until 1994. And that was the period in which Nelson Mandela struggled. As soon as the Apathy Party took over the government, it banned black and white marriages. Population registration began not by population but by color. In addition to all these, their dangerous law was the Group Area Act.
According to the law, white people could do so if they wanted to seize land from black people. The black community started a movement against these painful laws.
The mechanism of this movement was that blacks deliberately broke the rules.
Such as not showing your passes, traveling without a permit, entering the areas of Safifams without permission, etc. The government arrested thousands of people in the movement. Including Mandela. Mandela was first arrested on July 30, 1952. A magistrate’s court sentenced 21 people, including Mandela, to life in prison. The sentence was later suspended for two years.
That was a warning to the African National Congress. When the government became increasingly fed up with the black movement, it prosecuted 150 African blacks, including Nelson Mandela, for treason.
December 5, 1956 Connells Mandela and his associates are arrested. In prison, they were stripped naked and forced to freeze for more than an hour in the bitter cold. They were then held in prisons without bathroom doors. The government built a six-foot cage to injure the prisoners’ self-esteem and stuffed them like animals. Mandela’s lawyers boycotted the trial over the injustice.
Then this cage was removed. On the fourth day, everyone was released on bail. Mandela was granted 25 bail. The treason trial was underway in Johannesburg. On the other hand, black protests continued across the country. 21 March sat Ballet area police bullets killed 56 protesters and arrested more than 150 black marker.
On April 7, the government banned the African National Congress.
The government became even more angry when the international community pressured the government not to crack down on blacks.
He also severed his last ties with Britain on May 31, 1961, in response to a strong response from the international community. That is, he refused to accept Queen Elizabeth II as his ruler. The so-called rule over Africa also ended.
So the South African government told the world that it did not accept global pressure and the world.
The only difference for South Africa was that the chief executive was the chief executive, but now the presidency has been created and all powers have been given to him.
That is, the presidential system was implemented. The trial of Mandela and his associates continued intermittently for five years.
In that time, out of 150 accused, 30 were indicted. The rest were killed. South African white judges surprisingly ruled that all other prisoners were released on March 29, 1961. These judges did not accept government pressure. Mandela was released, but he understood that demonstrations would not only work, but also take up arms. After the trial ended, Mandela left his wife and children and went underground, mobilizing against the government. For months, police cordoned off the area and searched for Mandela, but no one was found. Nelson Mandela disguised himself and attended secret meetings of his party.
During a secret meeting, he persuaded his party to wage a political struggle against the government as well as military action. So Mandela formed an organization called Umkhondovo Sizwe at the party’s direction.
The name means in African language the spear of the nation.
This name was called MK in short. The organization decided to attack airports, homes, telephone lines, etc. to minimize civilian casualties. On December 16, 1961, we exploded in three African cities, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Durban. The contents of the blasts were hidden in plastic bags. The blasts targeted power plants and government offices. The bomber struck shortly after noon in front of a police station, killing at least 12 people. Prior to the bombings, MK had distributed leaflets across the country stating that it represented both whites and blacks. And using force only under duress. After the bombings, Mandela’s temptation increased, but this time Mandela fled the country with a fake passport. To get political and economic support for his party.
Mandela made a fake passport with a photo of him but his name was David Watts Maya. On this passport he traveled to many countries, including Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Egypt. The Guinean government gave a bag full of notes and the Senegalese government gave a diplomatic passport. He also traveled to London on a diplomatic passport that did not bear Mandela’s real name.
On his return from Britain, the African police laid out a secret plan and trap to arrest Mandela. He was arrested shortly after returning home. At the time of his arrest, Mandela was traveling in a car with a pistol and a notebook. In which the names of his colleagues were written. He hid these two things in the secret compartment of the car which never came into the hands of the police. Some say Mandela was arrested on a tip-off from the CIA, but Mandela himself never believed the idea.
Two separate trials were held on Mandela after his arrest.
One was to incite people against the government and leave the country without a passport, and the other was to carry out bombings and overthrow the government with the help of the Soviet Union. Peruvian prison is 60 kilometers from Johannesburg. He was kept in this prison hospital. But Mandela often made plans to escape.
He also mapped out his cell and security arrangements and passed it on to his colleagues, telling them to burn it after seeing the map.
Mandela’s associates have been plotting to oust him, including forcing him to wear a fake beard. The deportations were limited to word of mouth, but the lawsuits led to Mandela’s rule that media coverage from around the world was coming to court.
Mandela openly challenged the government. The first time he went to court, he was dressed in African war clothes. Standing in court, he said he did not believe in a government that was not represented in parliament, and said he did not expect justice from the court. Mandela’s words were reported in the press around the world. Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison in a strike and a passport case yesterday, and many in the court began to weep when he heard the verdict. In another case, Mandela and his associates were sentenced to life in prison for plotting to overthrow the government. Mandela was then imprisoned in Ruben Ireland. Where he was imprisoned for eighteen years. Mandela suffered the most severe mental torture in prison. Mandela’s letters were censored.
Even more tragic was the fact that Mandela was not allowed to attend the funeral of his mother and son.
There was another assassination attempt. The South African secret service sent one of its agents as a warden and lured Mandela to flee.
Mandela understood that a conspiracy was being hatched to get him out of prison.
He refused. The second attempt was made when Mandela and his colleagues were taken to the dentist.
Where they were kept alone in the room, the handcuffs were removed and the window of the room was kept open.
So one of Mandela’s associates understood that this was a government ploy, so they did not run away. On the one hand the government was trying to kill him while on the other hand MK was planning to make him escape. They made several attempts to get him to flee, but they all failed. After 18 years, Mandela was deported from Querandí to Marth Prison in Cape Town. This was the first time in 18 years that he got a good meal of meat and vegetables instead of lentils. Six years later, he was transferred to Worcestershire. In the meantime, Mandela continues to have better access to food and health care.
Ten years later, the South African government’s good relations with Mandela were due to growing global pressure on the government. In 1986, the Commonwealth banned the import of tourism coal and other commodities to South Africa. The situation inside the country was getting worse and worse. In June 1986, millions of blacks went on strike.
There were also bombings targeting policemen. On the one hand, the government was softening, on the other hand, the long swim had softened Mandela’s views. Now he is ready to talk to the government. After Rubin left Ireland, he contacted the government himself and the talks began.
When the news reached Mandela’s colleagues, they became alarmed. Oliver Tambo smuggled a letter with Mandela. And the government was asked to respond to the alleged deal. Mandela responded that the talks were aimed at paving the way for dialogue between the party and the government. This is no deal.
During his imprisonment, Mandela suffered a severe concussion that filled his lungs with water by 1988. She contracted TB at an early stage. So a dozen liters of water was extracted from his lungs. Mandela recovered and his talks with the government were successful.
South Africa’s white government is ready to give blacks their rights.
On February 2, 1990, President F w de Kelerk lifted the ban on more than 20 parties. Nine days later came the historic day when Nelson Mandela was released on February 11, 1990.
At 6 pm on February 11, Nelson Mandela was released from prison in a small convoy. Ten thousand days later, Mandela was now a free man, 27 years later. The crowds were so large that an alternative route to Cape Town had to be taken. But there were even more people in Cape Town. People surrounded the car and smashed its windows.
Mandela was taken to City Hall for a speech in which he was to read a handwritten speech, but it turned out that he had forgotten his glasses in prison. But his wife Winnie’s glasses number was the same.
So he read the speech. April 1994 – A historic election is held in South Africa.
The US Congress party won 292 seats in the African Parliament. His party did worse than expected from opinion polls, which saw them at gaining about 82 seats.
Then history saw that the same two parties that had been fighting each other for46 years formed a government together. Nelson Mandela became South Africa’s first black president, and Clarke, vice president, both won the Nobel Prize. On May 10, Nelson Mandela was sworn in as president.
Instead of seeking revenge, Nelson Mandela said he would build a world in which everyone could thrive without fear.
Mandela did not forget the prison when he became president. When US President Clinton visited Africa, he gave him the cell where he was imprisoned. Clinton praised Mandela Mandela’s presidential term ends in 1999. On March 29, 1999, Mandela delivered his last speech In his last speech, he said, “I hope that this journey of development will continue and the principal will have an equal opportunity. Mandela also left his wife, Winnie Mandela, before leaving politics The reason was that Winnie Mandela fell in love with a lawyer He built a house in his native Tino. Where some of his family still live.
Mandela also got married for the third time in 1998.
Over time, Mandela’s health began to decline. The disease that afflicted Mandela in the eagle, that is, the infection in his lungs, pursued Mandela to the end.
In 2013, Mandela became very ill. He spent three months in hospital, where doctors tried their best, but a lung infection spread. Nelson Mandela died on December 5, 2013 at the age of 95.